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Developing Leaders: The Role Of Competencies In Rural Community Colleges

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Pamela L. Eddy
Pending retirements underscore the need to develop community college campus leaders. Rural community colleges will be particularly hard-hit by changes in leadership as they represent the majority of 2-year colleges and face unique challenges given their location. To help address the anticipated leadership transition, the American Association of Community Colleges developed a set of competencies to frame critical skill areas and guide leadership development efforts. The research reported here showed both resource development and organizational strategy as areas of weakness for rural leaders and, paradoxically, the areas of most need. Leaders acquired competencies predominantly on the job, which has implications in planning development of future leaders.
Citation: Eddy. P. L. (2013). Developing leaders: The role of competencies in rural community colleges. Community College Review, 41, 20-43. doi: 10.1177/0091552112471557
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The Experience Of Community College Faculty Involved In A Learning Community Program

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Dimitra Lynette Jackson, Michael J. Stebleton, and Frankie Santos Laanan
A study was undertaken to determine how teaching in learning communities (i.e., courses that are linked or intentionally integrated in terms of learning objectives and shared assignments) affects the perspectives and work of community college faculty members. Interviews with 14 faculty members who taught in learning communities at a Midwestern community college indicated that the benefits of participation included greater empathy for and awareness of students, the development of authentic relationships with students, enhanced engagement in the larger campus community, and active collaboration and professional development with faculty colleagues across disciplines. Study limitations and implications are discussed.
Citation: Jackson, D. L., Stebleton, M. J., & Laanan, F. S. (2013). The experience of community college faculty involved in a learning community program. Community College Review, 41, 3-19. doi: 10.1177/0091552112473145
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Assembling A Career: Labor Market Outcomes For Manufacturing Program Students In Two-Year Technical Colleges

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Christopher J. Matheny, Hsun-yu Chan, and Xueli Wang
Objective: Research on labor market outcomes for individuals who enroll in technical colleges is limited, with even less attention to the effects of short-term certificates than associate degrees. Also, despite the importance of manufacturing programs, there is a lack of research on employment outcomes for individuals who enroll in these programs at technical colleges. In this study, we explored how types of credential earned are related to employment outcomes 4 years post-enrollment for students in manufacturing programs at public 2-year technical colleges in Wisconsin. Method: We drew upon administrative and wage data on over 6,000 first-time students matriculating into manufacturing-related programs at Wisconsin's technical colleges between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2009. Using ordinary least squares (OLS) and logistic regression, we investigated the association between types of credentials earned and labor market outcomes while controlling for the sample's socio-demographic background and academic experiences. Results: Our analyses revealed that students, particularly males, who completed an associate degree or a 2-year technical diploma were at an advantage in both rates of employment and earnings. White male students also enjoyed a stronger likelihood of being employed and earned higher annual wages than their ethnic minority counterparts. These advantages were not as manifest among female students. Contributions: Our study indicates that, to advance the employment prospects of technical college students, it is critical to expand institutional efforts to support longer term credential attainment. Our findings did not support the popular jobbing-out myth lingering in manufacturing education at the 2-year college level.
Citation: Matheny, C. J., Chan, H. Y., & Wang, X. (2015). Assembling a career: Labor market outcomes for manufacturing program students in two-year technical colleges. Community College Review, 43, 380-406. DOI: 10.1177/0091552115597999
Categories: Student Success
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Accelerating Pathways To College: The (In)Equitable Effects Of Community College Dual Credit

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Jason L. Taylor
Objective: The proportion of high school students taking college courses (e.g., dual credit) is increasing and state and local policies are expanding, yet little is known about the effect of dual credit policies on key educational outcomes, including the effects for low-income students and students of color. The purpose of this study was to examine how dual credit policies differentially influence college access and completion. Method: This study used propensity score matching to examine the impact of community college dual credit policy in Illinois using a large sample of students (n = 41,727) who completed high school in spring 2003. Drawing from Perna and Thomas' Conceptual Model of Student Success and Rawls' notion of justice as fairness, the study examined effect heterogeneity to determine differential effects for low-income students and students of color on two educational outcomes: college enrollment and college completion. Results: The analyses showed that dual credit policies positively affect all students, but smaller effect sizes were detected for low-income students and students of color compared with average estimates suggesting that existing dual credit policies are inequitable. Contributions: Policy implications and recommendations include assessing state policies and integrating non-cognitive and psychosocial supports into dual credit programs to support underserved students.
Citation: Taylor, J. (2015). Accelerating pathways to college: The (in)equitable effects of community college dual credit. Community College Review, 43, 355-379. DOI: 10.1177/0091552115594880
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Community College Students' Assessments Of The Costs And Benefits Of Borrowing To Finance Higher Education

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Lyle McKinney, Moumita Mukherjee, Jerrel Wade, Pamelyn Shefman, and Rachel Breed
Objective: The purpose of this study was to understand how community college students assess the risks and rewards of using personal loans to achieve their higher education goals. Method: Interviews were conducted with 12 federal loan borrowers attending a large, urban community college in Texas during the spring 2013 semester. Results: Findings from thematic analysis of the data revealed that although these students typically viewed borrowing as a last resort, they believed that loans had contributed to their academic momentum and success. However, these borrowers had many misconceptions about debt management and loan repayment. Many of the students expressed a willingness to borrow US$100,000 or more to achieve their educational goals. Collectively, our results suggest that community college students often borrow out of necessity to address immediate liquidity constraints without the requisite information needed to adequately assess the long-term implications of this financial decision. Contributions: Our findings serve as the basis for recommended changes to federal loan policies and financial aid counseling practices that could better protect community college borrowers, and help these students more accurately assess the costs and benefits of using loans.
Citation: McKinney, L., Mukherjee, M., Wade, J., Shefman, P., & Breed, R. (2015). Community college students' assessments of the costs and benefits of borrowing to finance higher education. Community College Review, 43, 329-354. DOI: 10.1177/0091552115594669
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The Reconstruction Of Community College Vocational Education: A Vision For Renewing American Democracy

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Clifford P. Harbour, and Jennifer R. Wolgemuth
Objective: The purpose of this article is to explain how central points developed in Dewey's 1916 Democracy and Education provide the rationale needed to adopt institutional and policy recommendations made by Grubb and Lazerson in their 2004 book, The Education Gospel: The Economic Power of Schooling. Method: The central points of Grubb and Lazerson's work, and the policy agenda offered to guide reforms, are reviewed. Results: The authors describe how a Deweyan view of education and democracy may provide the motivation and guidance needed to move forward on the Grubb and Lazerson agenda to benefit community college vocational education. Contributions: the argument advanced in this article reveals that a meaningful reconstruction of community college vocational education will require implementation of institutional reforms and public policy reforms. This reconstruction will also require, however, a normative vision to motivate policy makers, educators, and citizens.
Citation: Harbour, C. P., & Wolgemuth, J. R. (2015). The reconstruction of community college vocational education: A Vision for renewing American democracy. Community College Review, 43, 315-328. DOI: 10.1177/0091552115580391
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Community College Culture And Faculty Of Color

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): John S. Levin, Zachary Haberler, Laurencia Walker, and Adam Jackson-Boothby
This investigation examines and explains the ways in which community college faculty of color construct their understandings of institutional culture. We investigate four community colleges in California through interviews with 31 full-time faculty of color. This faculty group expresses identity conflicts between their professional roles and their cultural identities. Their understandings of their institutions suggest that the culture of the community college is more complex and multi-faceted than that portrayed in the scholarly literature, which often portrays the institution as homogeneous and the faculty body as uniform.
Citation: Levin, J. S., Haberler, Z., Walker, L., Jackson-Boothby, A. (2014). community college culture and faculty of color. Community College Review, 42, 55-74. doi: 10.1177/0091552113512864
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Expanding Dual Enrollment: Increasing Postsecondary Access For All?

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Josh Pretlow, and Heather D. Wathington
This study investigated the dual enrollment outcomes associated with a 2005 policy change intended to expand dual enrollment participation in Virginia. Results indicated that overall access to and participation in dual enrollment courses increased following the policy change. However, data showed this increase was not uniform, and minority groups remained significantly underrepresented when compared with their representation in the general student population. Furthermore, we examined the changes in postsecondary enrollment of dual enrollment students. Although a similar percentage of students enrolled in higher education before and after the policy change, we found variation in the timing and the type of institution in which students enrolled, with students after the policy change enrolling in 4-year institutions sooner after high school graduation than students in the cohort prior to the change. Implications related to educational opportunity and unintended consequences of the policy change are discussed.
Citation: Pretlow, J. & Wathington, H. D. (2014). Expanding dual enrollment: Increasing postsecondary access for all?. Community College Review, 42, 41-54. doi: 10.1177/0091552113509664
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Community College Alumni: Predicting Who Gives

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Lisa Ann Skari
Due to the decrease in public funding, community colleges are in a position where they need to generate private gifts. Alumni represent the largest untapped pool of prospective donors, and the success of alumni giving at 4-year institutions illustrates the potential that exists for community colleges. To develop effective fundraising strategies, 2-year colleges must understand what affects alumni giving. Guided by social exchange theory, the study develops a predictive model of community college alumni giving, exploring student experiences and demographics. A multistate sample (N = 7,330) suggests predictors consistent with research conducted at 4-year institutions, with the likelihood of giving related to student experience, age, wealth, and giving to other organizations. Other findings unique to community colleges conclude that alumni with an associate's degree are twice as likely to give as those who did not, and alumni who gave to their 4-year alma mater were nearly four times more likely to give to their 2-year alma mater. The study provides suggestions for future research on community college alumni donors, and new directions for 2-year college administrators and fundraising professionals.
Citation: Skari, L. A. (2014). Community college alumni: Predicting who gives. Community College Review, 42, 23-40. doi: 10.1177/0091552113510172
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Role Of Community Colleges In The Implementation Of Postsecondary Education Enrollment Policies For Undocumented Students

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): H. Kenny Nienhusser
This article examines the case of how the City University of New York (CUNY)--its central administrative offices and two of its community colleges--has addressed the issue of college access for undocumented immigrants in its implementation of New York's college in-state resident tuition (ISRT) policy for this population. It highlights the role of implementers--those individuals who make day-to-day decisions and whose responsibility it is to carry out mandates--and policy ambiguity in the execution of policies. A total of 19 individuals ranging from interest group representatives, local community-based organization officials, CUNY central administrative office officials, and staff from two community colleges were interviewed. This investigation finds that CUNY's central administrative offices have devoted a fair amount of resources on disseminating the availability of ISRT for undocumented immigrants and attempts to ensure proper institutional implementation of the state's policy as interpreted by its system-level policy. Day-to-day implementation measures at CUNY and its individual community colleges included two processes: application for admission and residency verification. Furthermore, community colleges, to varying degrees, have developed outreach efforts that have focused on disseminating the availability of this policy and to a certain extent its procedures via one-on-one counseling and written communication. Last, this article concludes with implications for the literature and institutional policies and practices to increase the level of students enrolled in community colleges.
Citation: Nienhusser, H. K. (2014). Role of community colleges in the implementation of postsecondary education enrollment policies for undocumented students. Community College Review, 42, 3-22. doi: 10.1177/0091552113509837
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Linking The Occupational Pressures Of College Presidents To Presidential Turnover

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Robert J. Tekniepe
Community colleges are expected to serve the needs of their local communities. Hence, college presidents are called on to lead this collaboration between the college and the community. Presidents, however, are affected by a multitude of factors that contribute to abridged tenures, a scenario that can have harmful effects on the educational institution, community, and collaboration. This study incorporated a quantitative research design based on Push-Pull Motivation Theory, a theory that broadly categorizes factors that affect turnover of executives into two areas. The first, push-induced factors, generally consists of organizational or community characteristics that motivate an elected board to dismiss an executive, or encourage him or her to seek employment elsewhere. The second, pull-induced factors, refers to conditions that facilitate an executive's departure due to career advancement opportunities. The study focuses on these occupational pressures that affect college president turnover based on data collected from 101 presidents of community colleges across 34 states. The analysis reveals that increases in political conflict, internal pressures, external stakeholder demands, and fiscal stress have statistically significant effects on college president turnover.
Citation: Tekniepe, R. J. (2014). Linking the occupational pressures of college presidents to presidential turnover. Community College Review, 42, 143-159. doi: 10.1177/0091552113516671
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The Impact Of Developmental Education On Community College Persistence And Vertical Transfer

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Gloria Crisp, and Chryssa Delgado
Developmental education has been cited as one of the most difficult issues facing community colleges. Despite the controversy and changes to educational policy regarding developmental education, there is a notable dearth of rigorous research measuring the causal effect of remediation on community college student outcomes. The present study uses data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS: 04/09) to measure the impact of developmental education on community college students' odds of persistence and vertical transfer after controlling for enrollment in remediation and institutional-level variables. Propensity score matching results reveal that students who enroll in developmental courses are systematically different from community college students who do not remediate in gender, ethnicity, first-generation status, academic preparation and experiences during high school, and delayed college entry. Moreover, post-matching hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) findings demonstrate that developmental education may overall serve to decrease community college students' odds of successfully transferring to a 4-year institution, with negative impacts on students enrolled in English and mathematics courses. Implications for research, policy, and practice are addressed.
Citation: Crisp, G., & Delgado, C. (2014). The impact of developmental education on community college persistence and vertical transfer. Community College Review, 42, 99-117. DOI: 10.1177/0091552113516488
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Peers And Faculty As Predictors Of Learning For Community College Students

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Carol A. Lundberg
This study tested the extent to which student interaction with faculty, student peer teaching situations, student organization involvement, and discussion with diverse others contributed to self-reported learning for students involved in an ethnic-specific or multicultural student organization. The Community College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CCSEQ) was used to collect data from 239 students who were involved in an ethnic-specific or multicultural student organization at 1 of 12 different community colleges. Self-reported learning was reported in the following domains: general education, intellectual skills, science and technology, personal development, and career preparation. For each of the five learning outcomes, frequent interaction with faculty was the strongest predictor in the model. Engagement with peers contributed to most outcomes, but not as strongly as student-faculty interaction. Thus, the study extends the contribution of faculty interaction to the arena outside the classroom and suggests further research about the ways student-faculty interaction benefits students at the community college level.
Citation: Lundberg, C. A. (2014). Peers and faculty as predictors of learning for community college students. Community College Review, 42, 79-98. doi: 10.1177/0091552113517931
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"A Foundation For Something Bigger": Community College Students' Experience Of Remediation In The Context Of A Learning Community

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Emily Schnee
This longitudinal, qualitative study explores developmental English students' experience of remediation in the context of a first-semester learning community (LC). Conducted at an urban community college in the Northeast, data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted over a 3-year period with a cohort of 15 students who were placed into a first-semester LC that linked the lowest level of developmental English with Introduction to Psychology and a student development course. Findings shed light on students' changing perceptions of their placement in remedial English, their insights into LC participation, and reveal implications for community college research and practice. Developmental students' experiences, voices, and perspectives are the focus of this study and are analyzed in the context of the highly contentious debate over college remediation.
Citation: Schnee, Emily. (2014). "A foundation for something bigger": Community college students' experience of remediation in the context of a learning community. Community College Review, 42, 242-261. doi: 10.1177/0091552114527604
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Community College Student Success: The Role Of Motivation And Self-Empowerment

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Kimberly Martin, Richard Galentino, and Lori Townsend.
Nationwide, low percentages of community college students graduate. Although community colleges' higher percentages of low income, academically underprepared, non-traditional, and minority students are often cited as the reason for low graduation rates, this study sought to examine common characteristics of community college students who do graduate. The qualitative study included interviews of community college graduates from a large, public community college in the Southeastern United States, as well as interviews of faculty and staff members at the institution. The students in this study were found to have the following characteristics in common: clear goals, strong motivation and a drive to succeed, ability to manage external demands, and self-empowerment.
Citation: Martin, K., Galentino, R., & Townsend, L. (2014). Community college student success: The role of motivation and self-empowerment. Community College Review, 42, 221-241. doi: 10.1177/0091552114528972
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Does Classroom Composition Matter? College Classrooms As Moderators Of Developmental Education Effectiveness

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Brian G. Moss, Ben Kelcey, and Nancy Showers
This study investigates how the impact of developmental education is moderated by classroom composition. Drawing on a regression discontinuity design, we used data from 3,429 community college students, nested within 223 classrooms, to explore the extent to which classroom and instructor characteristics moderated the effect of developmental English students' performance in a successive, college-level English course. Our results suggest developmental English students' college-level course performance benefited from developmental education but was modified by classroom and instructor characteristics. On average, the impact of participating in the developmental English program was greater when developmental students were enrolled in classrooms that contained a higher proportion of developmental students. Achievement for developmental students was also enhanced when developmental students enrolled in classrooms taught by full-time instructors. Findings suggest that after underprepared students completed developmental English, classroom composition in the first, college-level English course had significant influence on developmental students' performance.
Citation: Moss, B. G., Kelcey, B.,& Showers, N. (2014). Does classroom composition matter? College classrooms as moderators of developmental education effectiveness. Community College Review, 42, 201-220. doi: 10.1177/0091552114529153
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Facing The Closed Door: What Community College Students Do After Being Denied Transfer Admission

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Lynn Ceresino Neault, and William E. Piland
Lower division preparation for the university has been an important mission of community colleges since their inception, creating an essential pathway to baccalaureate degree attainment for many students who may not have access to higher education. The transfer pathway is complex and often difficult for students to navigate. This study examined the decisions students make after being denied transfer admission to a public university and the extent to which the difficulty with transfer is rooted in insufficient capacity to meet the growing demand for postsecondary education at many public universities in California.
Citation: Neault, L. C., & Piland, W. E. (2014). Facing the closed door: what community college students do after being denied transfer admission. Community College Review, 42, 184-200. doi: 10.1177/0091552114529813
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Nearbies: A Missing Piece Of The College Completion Conundrum

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Trudy Bers, and Pam Schuetz
Community colleges enroll nearly half of the students enrolled in public undergraduate programs and a disproportionate number of first-generation, low-income, underprepared and minority students. The new national completion agenda has brought both visibility and pressure to these open-access institutions, which have completion rates of less than 25% for first-time full-time students and even lower rates for part-time students. While interventions to improve success tend to be focused on the first year, a surprisingly large number of students successfully complete more than 1 year of college credits yet leave without completing a credential or transferring. This study focuses on these "nearbies," successful students close to completion who leave higher education. Results indicate students have varied reasons for departing, demonstrate behaviors at odds with their espoused value of earning a certificate or degree, and need support and encouragement throughout their time at the college. Personal relationships are particularly important in fostering a sense of connection.
Citation: Bers, T., & Schuetz, P. (2014). Nearbies: A missing piece of the college completion conundrum. Community College Review, 42, 167-183. doi: 10.1177/0091552114525834
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Community College Men And Women: A Test Of Three Widely Held Beliefs About Who Pursues Computer Science

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): Jill Denner, Linda Werne, Lisa O'Connor, and Jill Glassman
Efforts to increase the number of women who pursue and complete advanced degrees in computer and information sciences (CIS) have been limited, in part, by a lack of research on pathways into and out of community college CIS classes. This longitudinal study tests three widely held beliefs about how to increase the number of CIS majors at 4-year universities, particularly among females. Data were collected from 741 women and men from 15 community colleges in California who enrolled in an introductory programming class. The results highlight the importance of preparation and interactions with professors for male students, and of motivational, relational, and behavioral factors for female students, specifically peer support, expectations for success in computing, and computer gaming.
Citation: Denner, J., Werne, L., O'Connor, L., & Glassman, J. (2014). Community college men and women: A test of three widely held beliefs about who pursues computer science. Community College Review, 42, 342-362. doi: 10.1177/0091552114535624
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"How Much Economic Value Does My Credential Have?": Reformulating Tinto's Model To Study Students' Persistence In Community Colleges

Date Added: October 2, 2015
Author(s): G. Rob Stuart, Cecilia Rios-Aguilar, and Regina Deil-Amen
Community colleges play a key role in educating the large number of non-traditional, Low-income, and under-prepared students who have entered higher education in the past several decades. Despite increased access, community colleges are struggling to graduate students. Most, if not all, strategies provided by scholars to improve college completion rates assume increased student engagement will enhance persistence and success. Existing theories of persistence overlook the dynamic influence of job markets for the students community colleges serve. Using National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics data, this article draws on Tinto's theory of persistence and proposes a new framework that acknowledges the role of job opportunities and of work-family-schooling quandaries in community college students' choices about persistence. Our model builds on the following relevant notions: (a) human capital theory, (b) social integration, and (c) socio-academic integration. Our model has important implications for leaders who aim to better align students' college experiences with their desired careers and available jobs
Citation: Stuart, G. R., Rios-Aguilar,C., & Deil-Amen, R. (2014). How much economic value does my credential have? : Reformulating Tinto's model to study students' persistence in community colleges community college review, 42, 327-341. doi: 10.1177/0091552114532519
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