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Student Success: Institutional And Individual Perspectives

Date Added: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Christopher M. Mullin
This article examines measures of student success, with a focus on how they apply to community colleges. A conceptual framework is presented as a way of facilitating thinking about and accurately grounding discussions of student success. The article closes with an examination of emerging concepts related to the measurement of student success in higher education generally and at community colleges particularly.
Citation: Mullin, C. M. (2012). Student success: Institutional and individual perspectives. Community College Review, 40, 126-144. doi: 10.1177/0091552112441501
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Perspectives On Access And Equity In The Era Of (Community) College Completion

Date Added: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Debra D. Bragg, and Brian Durham
In an era when college completion dominates the policy agenda, matters of access and equity are critically important. The allure of raising completion rates by reducing access for students thought unprepared for college and incapable of finishing is too attractive to deny. This article discusses the importance of linking access and completion to ensure that equitable outcomes are obtained by community college learners and examines the question of how policy affects access in the context of the nation's college completion agenda. Key national initiatives undertaken to increase completion are examined with an eye toward understanding how the strategies developed by these initiatives affect student access and success.
Citation: Suggested citation - Bragg, D. D., & Durham, B. (2012). Perspectives on access and equity in the era of (community) college completion. Community College Review, 40, 106-125. doi: 10.1177/0091552112444724
Categories: Student Success
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Academic Innovation And Autonomy: An Exploration Of Entrepreneurship Education Within American Community Colleges And The Academic Capitalist Context

Date Added: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Matthew M. Mars, and Mary Beth Ginter
Employing interviews with individuals from 16 community colleges across the country, as well as an independent consultant engaged in activities of the National Association for Community College Entrepreneurship (NACCE), this study considers the organizational structures and academic practices associated with community college entrepreneurship education. More specifically, community college entrepreneurship education is argued to be a market-oriented trend that has been largely overlooked as a curricular alternative to workforce development models. The exploration is guided by and placed within the context of academic capitalism as articulated by Slaughter and Rhoades.
Citation: Mars, M. M. (2012). Academic innovation and autonomy: An exploration of entrepreneurship education within American community colleges and the academic capitalist context. Community College Review, 40, 75-95. doi: 10.1177/0091552111436209
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Achievement Goal Orientations Of Community College Mathematics Students And The Misalignment Of Instructor Perceptions

Date Added: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Vilma Mesa
This study reports on the results of a survey of achievement goal orientations administered to a sample of 777 students enrolled in remedial and college-level mathematics courses at a community college. Results indicate that students' achievement goal orientations are consistent with adaptive learning patterns: Students are interested in developing competence, expect and believe they can handle challenging work, avoid self-handicapping behaviors, and exhibit a positive mathematics self-concept. However, interviews with faculty members teaching the courses in which the students were enrolled revealed that instructors had a more negative perspective. This discrepancy suggests that instructors might not be taking advantage of the high confidence and motivation to learn that their students bring to the mathematics classroom.
Citation: Suggested citation - Mesa, V. (2012). Achievement goal orientations of community college mathematics students and the misalignment of instructor perceptions. Community College Review, 40, 46-74. doi: 10.1177/0091552111435663
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Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence And Prevention Approaches

Date Added: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Andrew F. Wall, Chelsea BaileyShea, and Scott McIntosh
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use, related harm, and implications for prevention among community college students. We used data from 7,965 students at 19 community colleges who responded to the Core Alcohol and Other Drug Survey. This secondary analysis of the survey data found heavy consumption among 47% of 17- to 24-year-old community college students, a figure that reflects national trends at 4-year colleges, and a significant heavy consumption rate (23%) among students who are 25 or older. Similarly, the study found that consumption and harm varied by individual background, environment, and student attitudes. Community colleges are challenged to consider the role alcohol plays in student health and learning, and whether new efforts to ameliorate the harm from heavy alcohol use are warranted in an era of limited institutional resources.
Citation: Suggested citation - Wall, A. F., BaileyShea, C., & McIntosh, S (2012). Community college student alcohol use: Developing context-specific evidence and prevention approaches. Community College Review, 40, 25-45. doi: 10.1177/0091552112437757
Categories: Student Affairs
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Identifying The Local Impacts Of National ATE Centers On Their Host Institutions: An Exploratory Study

Date Added: October 23, 2015
Author(s): Charles Henderson, Herb Fynewever, Heather Petcovic, and Andrea Bierema
The purpose of this study is to identify the local impacts of national advanced technological education (ATE) centers on their host institutions. A sample of three mature, national ATE centers are chosen, with each center serving as a case for a mixed-methods, collective case study research design. Results, drawn from interviews and surveys, indicate that national ATE centers create a variety of direct local impacts (i.e., impacts related to improving education in the targeted technology field) and indirect local impacts (i.e., impacts on the host institution that are beyond the targeted technology field). Direct impacts are created by a depth of focus on and connections to the targeted technology field, whereas indirect impacts are created by diversification within the host institution through collaborations with other projects on campus. The organizational structure and physical location of a center are also found to be important factors affecting the types of impacts created. In addition, characteristics such as strong center-industry partnerships, leadership qualities of the center directors, and a culture that promotes grant getting at the host institution are found to contribute to both types of impacts. The authors suggest that local impacts can be sustained through development and articulation of an ATE center's core competencies.
Citation: Suggested citation - Henderson, C., Fynewever, H., Petcovic, H., & Bierema, A (2012). Identifying the local impacts of national ATE centers on their host institutions: An exploratory study. Community College Review, 40, 3-24. doi: 10.1177/0091552112436678
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What Kinds Of Advising Are Important To Community College Pre- And Posttransfer Students?

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Janine M. Allen, Cathleen L. Smith, and Jeanette K. Muehleck
Educators assert that academic advising before and after transferring enhances the success of baccalaureate degree-seeking students who begin at community colleges. Yet, there is little research that investigates the kinds of advising that are differentially important to pre- versus posttransfer students. In this study, we examined the importance ascribed to 12 advising functions by two groups: (a) students enrolled at two community colleges who intended to transfer to 4-year institutions and (b) students enrolled at five universities who had transferred from one of the study community colleges. Pretransfer students differed significantly from posttransfer students in their ratings of 7 of the 12 functions. Results highlight the kinds of advising that are particularly important to pretransfer students, as well as advising functions that are highly valued by both groups. Implications for advising practices at 2- and 4-year institutions are discussed.
Citation: Allen, J. A., Smith, C. L., & Muehleck, J. K. (2013). What kinds of advising are important to community college pre- and posttransfer students?. Community College Review, 41, 330-345. doi: 10.1177/0091552113505320
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The Divided Self: The Double Consciousness Of Faculty Of Color In Community Colleges

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): John S. Levin, Laurencia Walker, Zachary Haberler, and Adam Jackson-Boothby
Through qualitative field methods research addressing faculty of color in four California community colleges, this investigation examines and explains faculty experiences and professional sense making. By combining critical race theory with social identity theory, our perspective underlines the potential social and ethnic identity conflicts inherent in the daily lives of faculty of color. The professional and social identities of faculty of color are not necessarily compatible, leading to a condition of "double consciousness," or what we refer to as "the divided self."
Citation: Levin, J. S., Walker, L., Haberler, Z., & Jackson-Boothby, A (2013). The divided self: The double consciousness of faculty of color in community colleges. Community College Review,41, 311-329. doi: 10.1177/0091552113504454
Categories: Faculty, Race and Class
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Racialized Readiness For College And Career: Toward An Equity-Grounded Social Science Of Intervention Programming

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Erin L. Castro
Social science methodologies of intervention programming for college and career readiness, particularly in regard to evaluation, must be situated within a larger context of racialized readiness for college and career. The policy context for this argument is a state-level evaluation of college and career readiness legislation in Illinois using David Conley's framework as one way to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programming offered by community colleges to high school students. Using critical race theory, I provide an example from an Illinois evaluation to show that when used as an evaluative rubric to assess college and career readiness intervention programming for high school students, Conley's framework has potential but needs to be augmented. Concluding are conceptual and practical recommendations for community college practitioners, evaluators, and policymakers.
Citation: Castro, E. L. (2013). Racialized readiness for college and career: Toward an equity-grounded social science of intervention programming. Community College Review, 41, 292-310. doi: 10.1177/0091552113504291
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Improving Student Outcomes Via Comprehensive Supports: Three-Year Outcomes From CUNY's Accelerated Study In Associate Programs (ASAP)

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Zineta Kolenovic, Donna Linderman, and Melinda Mechur Karp
Community colleges are grappling with low rates of degree completion and transfer. The City University of New York's (CUNY) Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) aims to improve graduation rates by providing a range of comprehensive support services to community college students in select majors. Using student-unit record data, we employed propensity score matching to examine short-term and 3-year outcomes from ASAP's first cohort, as well as logistic regression to identify program factors related to graduation. We found that ASAP participation was significantly positively related to retention, credit accrual, transfer, and degree attainment. Regression analyses indicated that a key influence on graduation is participation in advisement sessions. This study provides evidence that encouraging academic momentum via structured and comprehensive support can significantly improve community college graduation rates. It also provides evidence that ongoing and intrusive advisement can encourage positive academic outcomes among community college students.
Citation: Kolenovic, Z., Linderman, D., & Karp, M. M (2013). Improving student outcomes via comprehensive supports: Three-year outcomes from CUNY's accelerated study in associate programs (ASAP). Community College Review, 41, 271-291. doi: 10.1177/0091552113503709
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The Relationship Between Student Body Racial Composition And The Normative Environment Toward Diversity At Community Colleges

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Willis A. Jones
While there has been increased scholarship in recent years on diversity in higher education, most of this research has failed to include 2-year institutions in its analyses. This study examined whether the racial composition of the community college student body is correlated with an institution's normative climate toward three diversity outcomes: student conversations with racially different peers, student conversations with peers holding different beliefs, and student understanding of racially different others. The results indicate that having a more diverse student body had a positive, statistically significant relationship with each outcome. This finding suggests that community colleges, like 4-year institutions, can be positively influenced by enrolling a more racially heterogeneous student body.
Citation: Jones, W. A. (2013). The relationship between student body racial composition and the normative environment toward diversity at community colleges. Community College Review, 41, 249-265. doi: 10.1177/0091552113497090
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The Impact Of An Associate's Degree Program For Incarcerated Students: A Randomized Trial Of The Correctional Education Association College Of The Air Program

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Stephen J. Meyer and Bruce Randel
These article reports findings from an impact study of a 2-year postsecondary academic program offered in state prisons. Outcomes examined for participants during their 1st year of participation include performance on a standardized test of critical thinking skills, credit acquisition, achievement motivation, educational aspirations, personal development, and institutional (prison) climate. A cluster randomized design was used in which prisons in six states were randomly assigned to implement the Correctional Education Association College of the Air (CEA/COA) program or control programming. Analyses show that students in the CEA/COA program had average critical thinking scores that were about three fourths of a point lower, as measured by the Collegiate Assessment of Academic Proficiency (effect size =
Citation: Meyer, S. J., & Randel, B (2013). The impact of an associate's degree program for incarcerated students: A randomized trial of the correctional education association college of the air program. Community College Review, 41, 223-248. doi: 10.1177/0091552113497787
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Transfer Student Engagement: Blurring Of Social And Academic Engagement

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Jaime Lester, Jeannie Brown Leonard, and David Mathias
Transfer students are a distinct population. Their characteristics lead to a qualitatively different student experience. Drawing on interviews with a cross-sectional sample of transfer students at George Mason University (GMU), this study focused on the ways transfer students perceived their social and academic engagement, on the ways they engaged academically and socially at GMU, and on the ways in which their perceptions of engagement and their actual patterns of engagement affected their sense of belonging at GMU. Most notably, transfer students viewed social engagement in the context of family and community rather than college life. The findings have implications for how campuses support transfer students and question assumptions about some engagement theories.
Citation: Lester, J., Leonard, J. B., & Mathias, D (2013). Transfer student engagement: Blurring of social and academic engagement. Community College Review, 41, 202-223. doi: 10.1177/0091552113496141
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Self-Regulated Strategy Instruction In Developmental Writing: A Design Research Project

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Charles A. MacArthur and Zoi A. Philippakos
This design research project developed and evaluated curriculum for developmental writing classes in community colleges. The core of the curriculum was self-regulated strategy instruction, which has been shown to be effective with adolescents who are struggling as writers. In the curriculum, students learned strategies for planning, drafting, and revising compositions with an emphasis on using knowledge of text organization to guide planning and self-evaluation. In addition to specific writing strategies, students learned strategies for self-regulation. The study is part of a project that developed two levels of developmental writing courses, but only the lower level course is addressed in this article. This article reports findings from the first two cycles of implementation and revision. Over two semesters, the curriculum was implemented in eight classes taught by three instructors and revised after an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. Substantial gains in writing achievement and motivation were found, especially in the second cycle. In addition to successes, the article discusses design challenges for the curriculum and professional development.
Citation: MacArthur, C. A., & Philippakos, Z. A (2013). Self-regulated strategy instruction in developmental writing: A design research project. Community College Review, 41, 176-195. doi: 10.1177/0091552113484580
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Outcome Trajectories Of Developmental Students In Community Colleges

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Christine D. Bremer, Bruce A. Center, Christen L. Opsal, Amanuel Medhanie, Yoo Jeong Jang, and Aaron C. Geise
This analysis explores student outcomes related to taking developmental English (i.e., reading and/or writing) and math classes in three community colleges in three different states, using institutional data from 7,898 students who began college in the fall of 2009 (Cohort 1) or fall 2010 (Cohort 2). We examine the outcome trajectories of students at each college, considering their enrollment in developmental courses in their first term at college as well as other variables. Several factors helped students persist into the second term of college, and a subset of these was also significantly related to continued persistence, graduation, and higher overall grade point average (GPA). Older students, White/non-Hispanic students, and occupational students were more likely to graduate. These groups, and women, also had higher cumulative GPAs. Math ability at the time of college entrance was a powerful predictor of student success. The utility of reading placement as a predictor, and the utility of developmental English, reading, and writing (DERW) classes as an intervention, were both limited to retention into the second term and/or second year. Financial aid and tutoring were much more clearly related to student success than was developmental coursework.
Citation: Bremer, C. D., Center, B. A., Opsal, C. L. Medhanie. A., Jang, Y. J., & Geise, A. C. (2013). Outcome trajectories of developmental students in community colleges. Community College Review, 41, 154-175. doi: 10.1177/0091552113484963
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The Deconstructive Approach To Understanding Community College Students' Pathways And Outcomes

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Peter Riley Bahr
Two related themes currently dominate discourse on open-access colleges, particularly community colleges: increasing college-going and degree attainment and improving the performance of postsecondary institutions with respect to producing graduates. Largely missing from this discourse, however, is cogency concerning the innumerable ways in which students use open-access institutions, and the ways in which students' patterns of use interact with institutional policies and practices to influence the outcomes that they experience. Absent a thorough understanding of students' pathways through the institution, the development of interventions and the adjustment of institutional policies and practices to improve students' outcomes will be more a product of guesswork than of sound empirical reasoning. Unfortunately, traditionally favored analytical approaches are unlikely to rectify this large and troubling gap in our understanding. In this essay, I present the case for a different approach--a deconstructive approach--to illuminate students' pathways and the relationships between these pathways and outcomes.
Citation: Bahr, P. R. (2013). The deconstructive approach to understanding community college students' pathways and outcomes. Community College Review, 41, 137-153. doi: 10.1177/0091552113486341
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Literacy Skills Among Academically Underprepared Students

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Dolores Perin
A review of studies published from 2000 to 2012 was conducted to describe the literacy skills of underprepared postsecondary students, identify teaching approaches designed to bring their skills to the college level, and determine methods of embedding developmental instruction in college-level course work. The studies pinpointed numerous weak areas in students' skills, but it was found that certain reading and writing processes have been overlooked in the literature. Thirteen studies of the effects of instruction were found, most of which focused on strategy instruction or "meaning-making." The research tended to lack rigor, but five instructional studies reporting relatively robust data were identified. The main finding of the review is that, because of the lack of a sustained research agenda to date, as well as methodological flaws in existing studies, there is still much to be learned about the literacy skills of underprepared students. Eight areas for future investigation are suggested.
Citation: Perin, D. (2013). Literacy skills among academically underprepared students. Community College Review, 41, 118-136. doi: 10.1177/0091552113484057
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Student Success Courses In The Community College: Early Enrollment And Educational Outcomes

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Sung-Woo Cho and Melinda Mechur Karp
Using data from the Virginia Community College System and building upon prior Florida-based research, this study examines whether student success course enrollment, as well as student and institutional characteristics, has positive associations with shorter-term student outcomes, including earning any college credits within the first year and persistence into the second year. The present study finds that students who enrolled in a student success course in the first semester were more likely to earn any college-level credits within the first year and were more likely to persist to the second year. The study also finds that students who were referred to developmental education were more likely to earn any college-level credits within the first year if they enrolled in a student success course in their first term.
Citation: Cho, S. W., & Karp, M. M. (2013). Student success courses in the community college: Early enrollment and educational outcomes. Community College Review, 41, 86-103. doi: 10.1177/0091552112472227
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The Relationship Between FAFSA Filing And Persistence Among First-Year Community College Students

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Lyle McKinney and Heather Novak
In 2007-2008, approximately 42% of community college students who were eligible to receive Pell grant funding did not file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Using data from the Beginning Postsecondary Student Study, this study examined the relationship between FAFSA filing status and persistence from the fall to spring semesters among first-year community college students. Results indicate that when controlling for other relevant predictors of persistence, filing a FAFSA was associated with higher odds of within-year persistence among all students and was particularly strong for the restricted sample of students enrolled part time. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the national completion agenda and recent calls to improve the utilization of financial aid among community college students.
Citation: McKinney, L., & Novak. H. (2013). The relationship between FAFSA filing and persistence among first-year community college students. Community College Review, 41, 63-85. doi: 10.1177/0091552112469251
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The Community College Website As Virtual Advisor: A Usability Study

Date Added: October 16, 2015
Author(s): Jonathan Margolin, Shazia Rafiullah Miller, and James E. Rosenbaum
This study explored whether community college websites are a useful medium for providing knowledge relevant to degree completion. Ten community students used one of three community college websites to answer 10 questions about occupational degree programs. A facilitator asked participants to think aloud while using the website to answer these questions; their responses were video-recorded and coded in terms of correctness of answers and types of usability problems encountered. The findings suggest that participants frequently encountered problems with finding and understanding information needed to understand degree selection and completion. The content analysis of these problems yields several suggestions for improving the usability of community college websites for answering common questions about degree completion.
Citation: Margolin, J., Miller, S. R., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (2013). The community college website as virtual advisor: A usability study. Community College Review, 41, 44-62. doi: 10.1177/0091552112471844
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